How to Grow Tomatoes
How to grow Tomatoes
Chat about growing your own veg often turn to the wonders of home-grown potatoes and tomatoes, but the two are very different crops to grow. Potatoes are much easier, and need little attention, (see growing potatoes ) and tomatoes are the opposite; time-consuming and more difficult. Tomatoes need attention throughout all of the growing season starting with potting on, removing side shoots, thinning out the leaves as the plant matures, and as the fruits form, regular feeding and watering. Tomatoes are commonly grown in pots and grow bags, which can make it more difficult to leave them unattended for long periods, such as holidays, as they are prone to drying out if unattended. If you are thinking of growing tomatoes you need to work out how to keep them watered during summer holidays. It is very disappointing returning from a lovely holiday to find your tomatoes plants have all dried up. In the summer, if it is warm, tomatoes need watering several times in a week and if hot, daily attention. A gardening friend or neighbour is good, also there are also some effective irrigation kits on the market.
The Sunday Gardener has published a comprehensive e book " Success with Tomatoes" a concise guide of 55 pages, and 23 illustrates. Each chapter is full of information, tips and a step by step guide to growing tomatoes with a key point summary and checklist. You can keep it on your phone or table for easy referene when in the garden or greenhouse. It is available on Amazon and you can look inside before you buy; £1.99.
How to grow tomatoes from seed
Tomatoes are easy to get started from seed. Place two or three seeds into a small pot filled with fine compost, cover the seeds with a light sprinkling of compost and they will germinate quickly provided they are kept warm and covered (with polyethylene or propagator) until they have germinated. Early in the year when conditions are cool, it is best to germinate in a propagator to create a warm, moist atmosphere. The seedlings will emerge after a few days and once the seedlings emerge, uncover and reduce heat. If seedlings (of any plants, not just tomatoes, ) are left too long in a propagator the heat and warm moist atmosphere will make the seedlings floppy. It is important as soon as the seedling has fully emerged to remove the pot from the propagator, and keep frost-free.
When deciding which variety of tomatoes to grow from seed, think about the size of the tomato. The large beefsteak varieties will need a longer, sunnier growing season to ripen than the smaller cherry type which, depending on where you garden, sun and light levels, may be an important factor in deciding which type to grow. This is particularly true if growing tomatoes outside, as opposed to in a greenhouse which provides a warmer more sheltered growing environment.
As with all plants grown from seed they can become leggy if light levels are poor. This is because the seedlings stretch towards the light, and if the seedlings are in grown in conditions where the light is uneven, or low light conditions, it will produce poor seedlings for potting on. Early in the year tomatoes grown inside, and in particular on a window sill, can easily become leggy. If you do grow on a window sill where the light is predominately from one direction, turn the plant very regularly. If the seedling turns out leggy, don't throw it away, but when potting on plant it deeper to overcome the problem.
Video advice and tips on successful germination from seed.
As the tomato plant grows, it will need to be " potted on" which means re potting into larger pots. In the growing season, you may need to do this about 3 times from the small plug plant stage, until the tomato plant reaches maturity, and is large enough to go into full size pot or grow bag. It's tempting to save time and put the tomato into a larger pot at the beginning, but this will not help it grow. If you put a small plant into a large pot or grow bag, it will not thrive. Pot the tomato plant into a slightly larger pot doing this 2/3 times until planted into its final large growing container. The last pot should have a diameter of between 20- 30 cms, and larger is better. If you are growing a grafted tomato plant ensure you re the pot with the graft union above of the soil.
Grow bags are often promoted as a good growing medium for tomatoes. Whilst they are convenient the problem is the depth of compost is shallow. This causes problems when watering as the water has a tendency to run off. Also, the bag tends to flatten out as a result increasing the difficulty in watering. For tomatoes, regular watering is absolutely essential and irregular watering impairs the flavour and can cause the skins to split later in the season. It is important to get the water to the plants roots. To increase the soil depth which will help with the watering problem, use tape to strap up the bag, or supports as in the image left, to make it more rounded. You need to get the plants to a reasonable size before putting into a grow bag as in the image.
You can grow tomatoes outside but they will need a warm, sunny sheltered spot and not all gardens or parts of the country enjoy these conditions. A better alternative to get a good harvest is to grow in a greenhouse or poly tunnel which creates an ideal growing environment for tomatoes. If planting out side pick the most sheltered spot in your garden such as sheltered sunny patio.
Hardening off Tomatoes:
If you are going to grow your tomatoes outside you will need to "harden off" the plants, which means getting the plants used to the cooler, less clement conditions outside, as opposed to controlled conditions in a greenhouse, lean to or indoors where the seedlings have been previously grown. If you intend to grow outside, in late spring you will need to place the plants outside, starting on days when the weather is at its best placing the plant outside for increasingly longer periods.
The image left illustrates the wrong way to tie in a tomato plant. When the tie was put on, it probably looked Ok but as the plant has grown, the tie has tightened and damaged the stem. To avoid this use soft ties, check regularly and loosen as the plant grows. I really like raffia as a plant tie, it's very strong and looks natural.
The essentials for tomatoes:
Regular watering: All types of tomato plants need to be watered regularly and increasingly with size as they fruit. If you are growing under glass / greenhouse they will need watering daily on warm days to make sure plants do not dry out because this will damage the plant, and it can cause the fruit to have tough split skins, and a less sweet flavour. One of the aims of growing your own tomatoes is to have sweet tasting fruit; irregular watering will impair the flavour.
Regular feeding: Feed with proprietary tomato feed as soon as the first flowers appear, and feed regularly throughout growing season. The bottle will give instructions to ensure the correct amount of feed to water ratio. Try to avoid splashing feed or water the leaves.
The Upright Cordon type have added requirements
Upright tomatoes need more attention mainly because they grow taller and are very vigorous. Later in the season, around September it is necessary to "stop off" the tomato plants. This means to pinch out the growing tips at the top of the plant and stop the plant growing up any further. If you don't stop the plant growing up wards, it will put all its energy into producing more growth and leaves at the cost of flowers, which become the fruit. Stop off at the growth tips when the plant has 3-4 (outside grown) and 4-5 (greenhouse grown) trusses which are layers of flowers. Tomato plants are vigorous, and produce a lot of growth and leaf in full season. It is time-consuming but essential to take off some leaves and thin growth regularly. Continue taking out the growing points as the plant will strive to keep growing.
Pinch out tomato side shoots
As the plant grows it is essential to remove all new side shoots, which appear at the junction between the upright stem and the branch. Look at the plant main stem and where the branches grow, any little growth appearing at the junction of the upright stem and the branch needs to be removed. In the image my finger is pointing at the side shoot which grows at the junction. During the growing season the plant will produce side shoots at the junction of the plant and stems; keep removing them. You are containing the plant's growth by the removal of these shoots. Otherwise the plant, which is very vigorous, will produce a mass of leaves and shoots. By restricting growth it will produce more fruits. Because it is really important here is a short video How to remove side shoots
Thin out foliage:
Later in the season, if you have time, it is a good idea to thin out the tomato foliage so the plant puts energy into fruits and not more and more leaves. This needs to be done as soon as the flowers appear and carrying on as it fruits. The plant shouldn't have a mass of leaves on it. Be bold, cut them off. In the peak of the growing season I remove lots of leaves each weekend when checking the tomatoes. This also aids ventilation, which helps to reduce the risk of diseases. By the time there are several trusses of fruit,the leaves should be well thinned out.
When it's turning chilly, depending on Autumn weather, cut the tomatoes off the plant on the vine and lay them on cardboard/newspaper in a spare room, conservatory or a dish on sunny window sill and they will ripen. The Sunday Gardener has used this simple method to ripen tomatoes for several years without fail. The vines need to be somewhere warm, and the fruit will ripen . This method was found to be fool-proof when moving house one year in early Autumn and it was not practical to move the tomato plants, and so the tomato plants had to be cut down. The trusses of fruit were cut and left on cardboard in a warm place, and 80%+ ripened
The Golden Rules Growing tomatoes successfullyWatering is really crucial: do not let the plants dry out.
For best results feed regularly as soon as the first flowers appear.
Keep an eye on the plants, thin out leaves and take off side shoots.
Don't give up on them: Tomatoes will crop in greenhouse until November after which cut the vines and leave somewhere warm to ripen.
To avoid diseases, if growing under glass make sure there is good ventilation and air circulation, and avoid splashing the leaves when watering.