Easy to grow Herbs
Most herbs are easy to grow and some are available all the year round ready to pick for the kitchen. Herbs can be planted in the border, or containers and many have the added bonus of being attractive to bees and butterflies. Herbs are so easy to grow and it's good to have them on hand ready for cooking. Supermarket herbs are expensive, and the pots quickly get tired and need to be replaced. Herbs are commonly grouped together, but they are a very wide range of plants. It is because they are a diverse group of plants that planting all different herbs in the same place in the garden sounds attractive as a herb garden, but is only a good idea in theory. The Mediterranean type herbs are a good example in point, being easy to grow and include some of the common herbs we like to cook with such Rosemary, Thyme, Sage, but they have different growing requirements to say, Chives, Basil and Parsley. Some herbs can be planted together but not all. Herbs make great ornamental plants mixing well with many garden favourites and as such are not limited being planted in a herb garden or vegetable plot.
Not enough sun in your garden ? Check out Herbs for Shade.
Growing Herbs in containers
There are also some vegetables suitable for growing in containers.
Growing Herbs Rosemary Thyme Oregano and Sage
How to grow Rosemany
Rosemary is a perennial evergreen shrub which can be left growing outside all year round. This Mediterranean type herb grows best in a warm sheltered sunny spot with well drained soil. All the Mediterranean type herbs dislike intensely having their roots in cold, wet soil or being in a cold wind. This means if your garden has cold winds it can chill the plant causing the needles to go brown and die back. This winter of 2018 when we have had sustained, bitterly cold winds has been too much for an established R. officinalis 'Miss Jessopp's Upright' and it is now just dead stems and brown leaves. Time to plant again. In a sheltered spot Rosemary will do well and has lovely blue flowers in the late spring.
Rosemary officinalis is the upright form, illustrated above and which when grown in ideal conditions can reach a height of 1.5 meters. There is also creeping, horizontal form, Rosemarinus officinalis Prostratus Group, ( an impressive specimen illustrated was being grown the Botanical garden Cap Roig in Spain) and which is less hardy and always needs winter protection. This is not always made clear on the plant label and it is disappointing to buy a plant and find it fails to survive the winter. The trailing variety of Rosemary is best in a greenhouse over winter in contrast with the upright variety will survive an English winter provided it is in a sheltered spot.
How to grow Thyme
In contrast Thyme come in a number of sizes from low growing plants with some varieties are only a few centimetres high, to a small shrub Thymus vulgaris up to 30cms. Thymus arealso evergreen perennials and love a sunny, well drained spot in the garden. There are many different types of Thymes, most but not all are suitable for cooking, including T. citriodorus common name lemon scented Thyme which is fully hardy and good varieties are ' Archers Gold' and 'Golden King' with lovely gold variegated leaves and 'Silver Posie and Silver Queen' with cream variegated leaves; T.doerfleri 'Bressingham' a prostrate mat forming variety with purple pink flowers in the summer; T. 'Doone Valley' another fully hardy mat forming Thyme with lavender pink flowers.Thymes are attractive to bees and butterflies and will happily grow in poor soils, as a low growing plant Thyme looks good alongsidepaths in gravel and make an attractive edging to a path, as in the image above right. Thymes can get leggy and benefit from cutting back after flowering.Personally, if I could grow only one type of Thyme (possibly only one herb) it would be Thymus vulgaris which is illustrated left. I appreciate you are looking at the image thinking its not very exciting looking, but it is a fabulous cooking herb. This variety of Thyme has a lovely sweet flavour, and it's upright growth and shape means that you can cut a couple of branches and easily strip off the leaves. Some Thymes are very fiddly to remove the leaves. but not the simple T. vulgaris especially after it has had a couple of days indoors the leaves are so easy to remove and very tasty.
How to grow Sage
Growing Marjoram and Oregano
Another Mediterranean herb which is easy to grow and much loved by the bees is Marjoram, which I mainly grow because the bees and butterflies love it. In summer the herb will hum with activity. Growing conditions for Marjoram and Oregano are the same, essentially a dry spot with sun although Oregano is much tougher and will grow in most places, in fact the main draw back is that it is a prolific self seed and tends to pop up everywhere. It is vigorous, and you do need to check it, but the bees and pollinators cannot get enough in the summer. It's not a great herb for cooking with but as the image shows it does look great and keeps the bees happy and busy in the garden. I remove the shoots of new plants as soon as I see them growing in the borders to keep the Oregano under control. It is vigorous, it will self seed so needs regular checking.Oregano is best cut back each spring and new growth will form. It can get quite large and is receptive to the Chelsea chop in May to make it more compact.
Below is an image taken at Beningbrough Hall a NT property in North Yorkshire with an interest incorporation of Oregano as topiary. It was a reoccurring theme in the border and looked really effective.
How to grow Italian and Thai Basil
No herb garden is complete without Basil, powerfully scented leaves a staple of so many lovely summer dishes. Basil is very easy to grow, and all it wants, as you may expect, is a warm spot. Grow Basil in the greenhouse or indoors until the summer picks up, if it does, and then find a warm sheltered spot, on the patio is ideal. Basil is very tender and cannot be left outside over winter. Even if it is chilly the leaves will discolour and it will sulk, it likes it warm so keep inside or in a greenhouse until summer fully arrives.
It is however, easy to grow from seed. To grow Basil from seed just sprinkle 2/3 seeds into a small pot and create a mini propagator by covering the pot with a poly bag and securing with an elastic band. I also place a small pea stick or twig in the pot to hold the poly bag away from the plant. Fill the pot with good quality compost, mist with a water spray and cover the seed very lightly with compost. Cover with the bag and seal and it will germinate easily within a few days if placed somewhere warm, such as a window sill or greenhouse. As soon as the seedlings appear, take off the polythene bag and grow on ensuring the plant does not dry out. Once it has reached a decent size and has good roots, which will take a few weeks, pot on into a larger pot and it is ready to provide you with pickings all summer long. I cook with a lot of basil and make several sowings during late spring and early summer.
Just as easy to germinate and grow, and requiring very similar conditions, is Thai Basil, image above right, the traditional basil used in curries and Thai dishes. Thai basil tastes lovely and adds a really good flavour to cooking importing a slightly aniseed flavour. Seeds can be purchased in most garden centers and just like it's cousin, it is easy to grow from seed and needs the same warm sheltered conditions. It has the benefit of attractive purple flowers although these are best removed than admired because flowering will cause the plant to set its seed and stop growing.
There are quite a few different types of Basil to choose from depending on your cooking requirements. Sweet Basil is the most widely grown, a good variety is 'Genovese'. Thai Basil 'Siam Queen' is widely sold and has lovely pink purples flowers. Greek Basil has much smaller compact leaves, and whilst there are a number of red/purple varieties, 'Purple Ruffles' is very attractive and could be planted in flower beds with it's lovely ruffled leaves.
Every cook needs Parsley and the usual varieties grown and used in cooking are P.crispum which is the traditional curly leaved Parsley, and var.neapolitanum which is the French and Italian flat leaves variety, illustrated left. Both will grow in sun or partial shade and are best considered an annual as the leaves are less good the second year. In cold areas, although *** hardy Parsley does best with some frost protection and is not happy in the garden over winter. Parsley can be tricky to germinate from seed, often slow and sometimes it will not germinate. EU regulations in relation to seeds are such that there are minimum requirements for seed viability, which varies, but can be as low as 65% so not all of the seed will necessarily germinate. This means if your seed doesn't germinate it may not be your fault because at 65% viability clearly only just over half the seed in the packet has the propensity to germinate. Parsley seeds need warmth, good rich soil and to be kept damp. Early in the year the soil is too cold for Parsley to germinate easily and I would recommend sowing in the greenhouse or inside. The key to growing from seed is to ensure plenty of warmth, moisture, and patience, allow several days or weeks to germinate without the seed drying out.
Chives are a member of the onion family, really easy to grow and the bees love them. Latin name is Allium schoneoprasum, fully hardy and will tolerate partial shade. Chives have lovely purple flower heads and also make an ideal edging plant and are suitable for growing at the front of a border reaching height of around 30-40cms. Because Chives are hardy you can leave them out in the garden all the year round and they will be perfectly happy. They are also one of the few herbs which will tolerate partial shade. Chive flower heads are attractive to bees and are long lasting. Chives are perennial and die back over the winter months and start growing again very in the early spring. If the plant is looking a bit tatty by mid summer, Chives can be cut back and will produce new fresh green growth and often new flowers as well. The flowers are also edible and have become popular with the cooking trend of adding various flowers to salad dishes. Allium tuberosum is the Garlic flavoured chive, which has very similar growing requirements with white flowers. Both types of Chives will grow easily in full sun, or partial shade with no special soil requirements other than not to be waterlogged. Chives like so many herbs are easy to grow with little or no maintenance required.
Mint is a vigorous hardy perennial herb which would suggest that you can plant it and it will happily look after itself. The problem with mint is that it is vigorous and will take over if left to it's own devices. It sets out runners which will colonise an area quickly and think twice before planting in the veg plot or border. Also if planted with other herbs it will overtake them. Also after a year or so Mint can look a bit tatty with unappetising leaves which become tough. I find it lasts longer if overwintered in the greenhouse, (as in the image left alongside some parsley) and it is better grown in a container so it cannot run away with itself. It is important to contain Mint as it really can be rampant and I would always recommend planting in a container. If it planted in the ground, it should be planted in a sturdy pot in the ground, so that its roots are contained and it cannot run wild. There are now lots of different varieties of mint to choose from such as, Apple mint, Spearmint, Pineapple and Ginger Mint. Mint is one of the few herbs which will tolerate partial shade.
Tarragon is a great herb to grow especially because it is not always readily available in the supermarket and has a lovely aniseed flavour. There are two types, French, which has the stronger flavour and Russian which is hardier. The French Tarragon not will survive unless overwintered in a greenhouse or outside if your garden is sheltered and covered with a mulch. Tarragon, Latin name Artemisia dracunculus, is part of the Artemisia genus which all have aromatic foliage often grey or silver leaves which make attractive border plants. Tarragon thrives in and really needs to be grown in full sun, a warm sheltered spot and in well drained soil. Tarragon is classified as *** hardy though it thrives best in warmer spots and needs to be overwintered out of the frost and chill winds. French Tarragon does not set seed very often so is usually grown from small plants. Russian Tarragon can be raised from seed. French Tarragon can be propagated from cuttings and grown all the year round if kept under glass. Plants generally run out of steam after 2/3 years and will need replacing.